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Soon after the city created the world's first dental college, the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, in 1840, and shared in the world's first telegraph line, between Baltimore and Washington DC in 1844.Maryland, a slave state with abundant popular support for secession in some areas, remained part of the Union during the American Civil War, due in part to the Union's strategic occupation of the city in 1861.and is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, and Mount Vernon, which were added to the National Register between 1969–1971. The city has 66 National Register Historic Districts and 33 local historic districts. The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region.Close to a third of the city's buildings (over 65,000) are designated as historic in the National Register, which is more than any other U. Over 65,000 properties are designated historic buildings in the National Register of Historic Places listings in Baltimore, more than any other U. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period.Baltimore acquired its moniker "The Monumental City" after an 1827 visit to Baltimore by President John Quincy Adams.At an evening function Adams gave the following toast: "Baltimore: the Monumental City—May the days of her safety be as prosperous and happy, as the days of her dangers have been trying and triumphant." Baltimore pioneered the use of gas lighting in 1816 and its population grew rapidly in the following decades, with concomitant development of culture and infrastructure.
& O.) made Baltimore a major shipping and manufacturing center by linking the city with major markets in the Midwest.
Harborplace, an urban retail and restaurant complex, opened on the waterfront in 1980, followed by the National Aquarium, Maryland's largest tourist destination, and the Baltimore Museum of Industry in 1981.
During the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in the United States, Baltimore City Health Department official Robert Mehl persuaded the city's mayor to form a committee to address food problems; the Baltimore-based charity Moveable Feast grew out of this initiative in 1990.
The Baltimore riot cost the city an estimated million (US$ 69 million in 2017).
A total of 11,000 Maryland National Guard and federal troops were ordered into the city.
The Battle of Baltimore against the British in 1814 inspired the composition of the USA's national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner," and the construction of the Battle Monument which became the city's official emblem.