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Franz Weidenreich, who replaced Black in China after the latter's death in 1933, argued that Sinanthropus was also a transitional fossil between apes and humans, and was in fact so similar to Java's Pithecanthropus that they should both belong to the family Hominidae.
Eugène Dubois categorically refused to entertain this possibility, dismissing Peking Man as a kind of Neanderthal, closer to humans than the Pithecanthropus, and insisting that Pithecanthropus belonged to its own family, the Pithecanthropoidae. von Koenigswald recovered several other early human fossils in Java.
Though Darwin's claims have since been vindicated by the fossil record, they were proposed without any fossil evidence.
Other scientific authorities disagreed with him, like Charles Lyell, a geologist, and Alfred Russel Wallace, who had thought of the theory of evolution around the same time as Darwin.
Its characteristics were a long cranium with a sagittal keel and heavy browridge.The fossils of Java Man have been housed at the Naturalis in the Netherlands since 1900.Charles Darwin had argued that humanity evolved in Africa, because this is where great apes like gorillas and chimpanzees lived.1922 reconstruction of a Java Man skull, due to Trinil 2 being only a cranium, Dubois who believed Java man was transitional between apes and humans, drew the reconstruction with an ape-like jaw but a brain larger than apes' More than 50 years after Dubois's find, Ralph von Koenigswald recollected that, "No other paleontological discovery has created such a sensation and led to such a variety of conflicting scientific opinions." Until the Taung child – the 2.8 million-year-old remains of an Australopithecus africanus – were discovered in South Africa in 1924, Dubois's and Koenigswald's discoveries were the oldest hominid remains ever found.
Some scientists of the day suggested that Dubois's Java Man was a potential intermediate form between modern humans and the common ancestor we share with the other great apes.Eventually, similarities between Pithecanthropus erectus (Java Man) and Sinanthropus pekinensis (Peking Man) led Ernst Mayr to rename both Homo erectus in 1950, placing them directly in the human evolutionary tree.