Dating a germany china plates
Two, one in the Victoria & Albert Museum in London and the other in the Bargello in Florence, are believed to have been made for a wedding in the 1390's (Young), while the remains of a third, in a private collection as late as World War II, may have been made for the royal house of Anjou (Loomis).
All three show scenes from the Tristan legend, with the Anjou quilt including a border of the Seven Deadly Sins!
India had a strong native quilting tradition and quickly began producing export work in cotton and silk (the very word calico, later the name of the favorite quilting cotton, is derived from Calcutta).
Portugal in particular imported "pintadoe quilts" from its Indian possessions (Rae), as well as palampores and unquilted spreads that were later worked up into "colchas" on the Iberian peninsula (Gillow).
These early quilts and quilted objects, and virtually all surviving quilting until the 17 century, were of linen stuffed with raw cotton; if wool flocking was ever used for anything besides perhaps armor, it was far too attractive to moths to survive (Colby).
That quilting was not confined to Italy and Germany is evident from two 15 century French references.
The trio is worked in the same technique as the Siberian rug of 1200 years earlier: backstitched linen on linen around the decorative motifs, cotton stuffing in the trapunto sections, and running stitch quilting in the backgrounds.
A similar quilt, possibly of silk, is shown in the Flemish Bartolomeo Bermejos 1450 painting The Death of the Virgin, placing quilting in the Netherlands by the 15 century (Lidz), while a German painting of 1500 shows a quilted, pieced tunic in what may well be the first accurate depiction of pieced clothing in western art (Gwinner).
Quilted garments padded Crusader mail, quilted linens adorned Renaissance bedchambers, and quilted Evangelists were treasured at 15 century monasteries (Colby).
A Provencal inventory of 1426 mentions bedcovers worked with figures of Alexander and Solomon "in the style of Naples," almost unquestionably a reference to trapunto. Young, Susan, "Sister Quilts from Sicily," in Quilters Newletter Magazine, September 1993.
Sixty years later the bedchamber of no less a figure than King Rene of Anjou contained a quilt "stitched with figures of men and women" (Berenson).
The central motifs (primarily animals, with abstract spirals on the borders) are worked in the backstitch, while the background is diamond quilted in a coarse running stitch.
Whether the Siberians developed quilting on their own or learned it from outsiders, its advantages in such a cold climate are obvious: warmth without bulk, strength without stiffness, useable in everything from clothing to saddlecloths, and unusual enough to be traded for luxury goods.
Quilting does not appear to have been done in Europe much before the 12 century, and is usually thought to have been brought back from the Middle East by the returning Crusaders (Colby 1971).